Param Vir Chakra winners - Salute The Real Heroes of Mother India

The Param Vir Chakra (PVC) is awarded to officers and enlisted personnel of all military branches for the highest degree of valor or self-sacrifice in the presence of the enemy. It may be awarded posthumously. The PVC is a post-Independent equivalent of the Victoria Cross (VC).


Param Vir means "Bravest of the Brave"
(Param = Highest; Vīr = Brave warrior; Chakra = wheel/medal).

The PVC was established on 26th January 1950 (the date of India becoming a republic), by the President of India, with effect from 15 August 1947 (the date of Indian independence). It can be awarded to officers or enlisted personnel from all branches of the Indian military. It is the second highest award of the government of India after Bharat Ratna (amendment in the statute on 26 January 1980 resulted in this order of wearing)

The award also carries a cash allowance for those under the rank of lieutenant (or the appropriate service equivalent) and, in some cases, a cash award. On the death of the recipient, the pension is transferred to the widow until her death or remarriage. The paltry amount of the pension has been a rather controversial issue throughout the life of the decoration. By March 1999, the stipend stood at Rs. 1500 per month. In addition, many states have established individual pension rewards that far exceeds the central government's stipend for the recipients of the decoration.

Param Vir Chakra's Design

The medal was designed by Savitri Khanolkar who was married to an Indian Army officer, Vikram Khanolkar. This was done following a request from the first Indian Adjutant General, Major General Hira Lal Atal, who in turn had been entrusted with the responsibility of coming up with an Indian equivalent of the Victoria Cross by Pandit Jawahar Lal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of the Indian Union. Coincidentally, the first Param Vir Chakra was awarded to her son-in-law Lt Gen Surinder Nath Sharma's (ENC) elder brother , Major Somnath Sharma for his bravery in the Kashmir operations in November 1947. He died while evicting Pakistani infiltrators and raiders from the Srinagar Airport. This was when India and newly-formed Pakistan had the first war over the Kashmir issue.

The medal is a circular bronze disc 1.375 inches (3.49 cm) in diameter. The state emblem appears in the center, on a raised circle. Surrounding this, four replicas of Indra's Vajra (the all-powerful mythic weapon of the ancient Vedic King of Gods). The decoration is suspended from a straight swiveling suspension bar. It is named on the edge.

On the rear, around a plain center, are two legends separated by lotus flowers. The words Param Vir Chakra are written in Hindi and English. A purple ribbon, 32 millimetres (1.3 in) long, holds the Param Vir Chakra. The medal symbolizes Rishi Dadhichi, who had donated his bones to the Gods for making Vajra

Facts about Param Vir Chakra

  1. Of the 21 Paramveer Chakra awardees, 20 are from the Indian Army and one from the Indian Air Force.
  2. Som Nath Sharma, the first recipient of the award, was the award designer Mrs. Savitri Khanolkar's son-in-law. posthumous.
  3. Grenadiers Regiment have received the most number of Param Vir Chakras, with 3 awards, one each for the Indo-Pakistan 1965 war, 1971 Indo-Pakistan war and the Kargil War. The Gorkha Rifles have also received three awards, with the 1st Gorkha Rifles (The Malaun Regiment), 8th Gorkha Rifles and 11th Gorkha Rifles each receiving one.
  4. The Sikh Regiment, Kumaon Regiment, 17th Poona Horse and Jammu and Kashmir Rifles have received two awards.
  5. The highest rank to be awarded a Param Vir Chakra is that of a Lieutenant Colonel. Lt. Col. Ardeshir Tarapore.
  6. The award to Major Dhan Singh Thapa, for the battle of Sirijap in the 1962 War was initially announced as a posthumous award. It was not known that Major Thapa was taken POW at that time.

Param vir chakra winners 
Stories of the highest gallantry award winners of the armed forces.

1947-48 Jammu and Kashmir Operations

Major Somnath Sharma, 4 Kumaon, posthumous

Major Somnath Sharma Major Somnath Sharma son of Major General Amarnath Sharma, was born on January 31, 1923, in Himachal Pradesh. He was commissioned in the Kumaon Regiment on February 22, 1942. On October 22, 1947, Pakistan launched the tribal invasion of Jammu & Kashmir. Major Somnath Sharma laid down his life for the country on November 3, 1947 in Badgam, Kashmir in a brave fight against Pakistan troops. Major General Amarnath Sharma received India's first and highest wartime gallantry medal, Param Vir Chakra, on behalf of his son.

2nd Lt. Rama Raghoba Rane, Corps of Engineers

 Second Lieutenant Rama Raghoba Rane Second Lieutenant Rama Raghoba Rane was born on June 26, 1918 at Chendia, Karnataka. He was commissioned in the Corps of Engineers on December 15, 1947. He served with distinction during the 1947-48 Jammu & Kashmir operations. On March 18, 1948, the Indian Army recaptured Jhangar, which was lost to the enemy in December 1947. Indian troops then planned an advance from Naushahra to Rajouri. Rane made a substantial contribution in facilitating the Indian advance on Rajouri. The gallant effort made by Rane during this critical advance earned him the highest wartime gallantry medal, Param Vir Chakra.

• CHM Piru Singh Shekhawat, 6 Rajputana Rifles, posthumous

Company Havildar Major Piru Singh Company Havildar Major Piru Singh was born on May 20, 1918 in Rajasthan. He was enrolled in the 6 Rajputana Rifles on May 20, 1936. During the Jammu & Kashmir operations in summer of 1948, Pakistani raiders mounted a strong counter offensive in the Tithwal sector. The enemy also forced the Indian Army to vacate their forward positions across river Kishanganga. After the setback, Indian troops took position on the Tithwal ridge. Havilder Major Piru Singh laid down his life, in a brave fight against the enemies, leaving for the rest of his comrades a unique example of single-handed bravery and determined courage. He was honoured with the highest wartime gallantry medal, Param Vir Chakra, posthumously.

Naik Jadunath Singh , 1 Rajput, posthumous

Naik Jadunath Singh Naik Jadunath Singh was born on November 21, 1916 in Shahjahanpur, Uttar Pradesh. He was enrolled in the 1 Rajput Regiment on November 21, 1941. During the Jammu & Kashmir operations in the winter of 1947, the capture of Jhangar on December 24th, by the Pakistani raiders, placed them in an advantageous position in the Naushahra sector. At a most critical stage in the battle for the defence of Naushahra, he saved his picket from being overrun by the enemy. Naik Jadunath Singh was honoured with the highest wartime gallantry medal, Param Vir Chakra, posthumously.

• Lance Naik Karam Singh, 1 Sikh

 Lance Naik Karam Singh Lance Naik Karam Singh was born on September 15, 1915, in Barnala, Punjab. He was enrolled in 1 Sikh Regiment on September 15, 1941. He had earned a Military Medal in World War II. During the Jammu & Kashmir operations in 1948, the Indian Army made substantial gains in the Tithwal sector. Karam Singh was honoured with the highest wartime gallantry medal, Param Vir Chakra, for his outstanding role in the battle of Tithwal.

1962 Indo-China War

Major Shaitan Singh , 13 Kumaon, posthumous

 Major Shaitan Singh Major Shaitan Singh, son of Lieutenant Colonel Hem Singhji, was commissioned in the Kumaon Regiment on August 01, 1949. During the 1962 Indo-China conflict, 13 Kumaon was deployed in Chusul sector. The battalion led by Major Shaitan Singh held a crucial position at Rezang La, at a height of 5000 metres. The expected Chinese attack on Rezang La came on November 18. Unmindful of his personal safety, Major Shaitan Singh moved from one platoon post to another and encouraged his men to fight. He was mortally wounded. Shaitan Singh was awarded Param Vir Chakra, the highest wartime gallantry medal, posthumously, for his leadership and devotion to duty.

Major Dhan Singh Thapa , 1/8 Gorkha Rifles

 Major Dhan Singh Thapa Major Dhan Singh Thapa, born on April 10, 1928 in Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, was commissioned in the 8 Gorkha Rifles on August 28, 1949. The Sirijap valley, north of the Pangong Lake in Ladakh, was considered vital for the defence of Chushul airfield. The 1/8 Gorkha Rifles had outposts there to thwart any enemy encroachment in the area. One of these outposts named Sirijap-1 was held by a platoon of 'D' Company under the command of Major Dhan Singh Thapa when the Chinese attack came on October 21, 1962. Major Thapa repulsed the attack, inflicting heavy losses on the enemy. For his gallant act, Major Dhan Singh Thapa was honoured with the highest wartime gallantry medal, Param Vir Chakra.

Subedar Joginder Singh , 1 Sikh, posthumous

Subedar Joginder Singh Subedar Joginder Singh was born on September 26, 1921, in Faridkot, Punjab. On September 28, 1936, he was enrolled in the 1 Sikh Regiment. During the 1962 Indo-China War, Subedar Joginder Singh commanded a platoon in the Tawang sector of North East Frontier Agency. On October 23, the Chinese launched an attack on the Bum La axis. Subedar Joginder Singh and his platoon stood firm like a rock. Singh, despite a wound in the thigh, refused evacuation. He manned a light machine gun and killed a large number of enemies. By now all ammunition with the platoon had been exhausted. Subedar Joginder Singh and his men fell upon the advancing enemy and bayoneted many to death. Subedar Singh was killed in this epic battle. For his inspiring leadership, courage and devotion to duty, he was awarded the highest wartime gallantry medal, the Param Vir Chakra, posthumously.

1965 Indo-Pak War

Lt. Col. A.B. Tarapore, 17 Poona Horse, posthumous

 Lieutenant Colonel Ardeshir Burzarji Tarapore Lieutenant Colonel Ardeshir Burzarji Tarapore was born on August 18, 1923 in Mumbai. He joined the Hyderabad State Force in 1942 and saw active service in West Asia during World War-II. He was commissioned in Poona Horse on April 01, 1951. The biggest tank battle of the 1965 Indo-Pak War took place at Phillora in the Sialkot sector. Lt. Col. A B Tarapore defied the enemy's charge, held his ground and gallantly attacked Phillora with one of his squadrons supported by an Infantry battalion. When wounded, he refused to be evacuated. On September 14, 1965, he led his regiment to capture Wazirali. Unmindful of his injury, he again led his regiment and captured Jassoran and Butur-Dograndi on September 16, 1965. In this battle his own tank was hit several times. Lt. Colonel A B Tarapore tank was in flames and he died a hero's death. Lieutenant Colonel Ardeshir Burzarji Tarapore was awarded with the highest war-time gallantry medal, Param Vir Chakra, posthumously.

CQMH Abdul Hamid , 4 Grenadiers, posthumous

 Company Quarter-Master Havildar Abdul Hamid Company Quarter-Master Havildar Abdul Hamid was born on July 1, 1933, in Uttar Pradesh. He was enrolled in the 4 Grenadiers on December 27, 1954. During the 1965 Indo-Pak War, 4 Indian Division was entrusted with the responsibility of capturing Pak territory East of Lchhogil Canal and contain possible enemy attack on Kasur-Khem Karan axis. The enemy tanks had penetrated the forward company positions. Hamid was commanding a recoilless gun detachment. He knocked out two enemy tanks. By this time the enemy brought down concentrated machine gun and high explosive fire on him. But he kept on firing. He was mortally wounded by a high explosive shell. Hamid was honoured with the highest war time gallantry medal, Param Vir Chakra, posthumously.

1971 Indo-Pak War

Major Hoshiar Singh , 3 Grenadiers - 1971 War

 Major Hoshiar Singh Major Hoshiar Singh was born on May 05, 1936 in Haryana. He was commissioned in the Grenadiers Regiment on June 30, 1963. He was also Mentioned-in-Despatches. On December 17th, during the 1971 Indo-Pak war, though wounded seriously in enemy shelling, Major Singh again went alone from trench to trench, moving in the open. Major Singh, realising the importance of fire support at this juncture, rushed to the machine gun pit and operated the gun inflicting heavy casualties on the enemy. The enemy attack was repulsed, and they beat a hasty retreat. Throughout this operation, Major Singh displayed the most conspicuous gallantry in the face of the enemy, grim determination and indomitable spirit. He was honoured with the highest wartime gallantry medal, Param Vir Chakra.

2nd Lt. Arun Khetarpal , 17 Poona Horse, posthumous

 Second Lieutenant Arun Khetarpal, son of Brigadier M L Khetarpal, was born on October 14, 1950, in Pune, Maharashtra. He was commissioned in the 17 Poona Horse on June 13, 1971. During the 1971 Indo-Pak War, the 47 Infantry Brigade, with the 17 Poona Horse under command, was ordered to establish a bridge-head across the Basantar River in Shakargarh sector. Khetarpal fiercely attacked the enemy strong points and captured many enemy soldiers and recoilless guns at gunpoint. He destroyed several enemy tanks. In the thick of the battle, Khetarpal's tank also received a shot and burst into flames. But realising the useful role of his tank in preventing a breakthrough, he set about destroying the remaining enemy tanks. At this stage his tank received a second hit. The brave Officer met his death denying the enemy the intended breakthrough. For his conspicuous gallantry, Khetarpal was honoured with the highest wartime gallantry medal, the Param Vir Chakra, posthumously.

Fg. Off. N.J.S. Sekhon , No.18 Squadron, posthumous

 Flying Officer Nirmal Jit Singh Sekhon Flying Officer Nirmal Jit Singh Sekhon was born on July 17, 1943 in Ludhiana, Punjab. He was commissioned into the Indian Air Force on June 4, 1967. During the 1971 operations, Sekhon was with No. 18 "Flying Bullets" Squadron flying the Folland Gnat fighter based at Srinagar. He and his colleagues fought successive waves of intruding Pakistani aircraft with valour and determination. On the 14th of December 1971, Srinagar Airfield was attacked by a wave of six enemy Sabre aircraft. Sekhon took off and immediately engaged a pair of the attacking Sabres. He succeeded in damaging two of the enemy aircraft. His aircraft crashed and he was killed. For his sublime heroism, supreme gallantry, he was awarded Param Vir Chakra, the highest wartime gallantry medal, posthumously.

Lance Naik Albert Ekka , 14 Guards, posthumous

 Lance Naik Albert Ekka Lance Naik Albert Ekka was born on December 27, 1942 in Ranchi, Bihar. He was enrolled in the 14 Guards on December 27, 1962. During the 1971 Indo-Pak War, the 14 Guards was asked to capture a Pakistani position at Gangasagar, 6½ km west of Agartala in the eastern sector. Ekka went with the left forward company of the battalion in the attack. He charged the enemy bunker, bayoneted two enemy soldiers and silenced the light machine gun. Though seriously injured in this encounter, he continued to fight alongside his comrades with courage, securing bunker after bunker. He hurled a grenade into the enemy bunker. Ekka died of the injuries suffered during this battle. Lance Naik Albert Ekka was awarded Param Vir Chakra, the highest wartime gallantry medal, posthumously.

1999 Kargil Operations

Four Kargil war heroes were awarded the highest gallantry award on January 26, 2000 for displaying the valour of the highest order during operation Vijay. While Caption Vikram Batra and Lt. Manoj Pandey were awarded PVC posthumously, Grenadier Yogendra Singh and Riflemen Sanjay Kumar received the award from the President, Mr. K.R. Narayanan in person.

Captain Vikram Batra , 13 JAK Rifles, posthumous

 Captain Vikram Batra Captain Vikram Batra, 13 Jammu and Kashmir Rifles, and his Delta Company were given the task of recapturing Point 5140. Captain Batra single-handedly engaged three enemy soldiers in close combat and killed them. He was seriously injured during this combat, but insisted on regrouping his men to continue with the given task at hand. Inspired by the extraordinary courage displayed by Captain Batra, the soldiers of 13 JAK Rifles charged the enemy position and captured Point 5140 at 3:30 a.m. on June 20, 1999. Captain Batra led his men to even more glorious victories with the recapture of Point 4750 and Point 4875. He was tragically killed, when he tried to rescue an injured officer during an enemy counterattack. For his sustained display of the most conspicuous personal bravery, Captain Vikram Batra was awarded the Param Vir Chakra, India's highest medal for gallantry, posthumously.

Lieutenant Manoj K. Pandey , 1/11 GR, posthumous

 Lieutenant Manoj Kumar Pandey Lieutenant Manoj Kumar Pandey, 1/11 Gorkha Rifles, forced back the intruders from the Batalik sector on June 11, 1999. He led his men to recapture the Jaubar Top, a feature of great operational importance. But his finest hour was in the capture of Khalubar in the early morning hours of July 3, 1999. On the night of July 2-3, 1999 the battalion's progress on to its final objective, was halted by a determined enemy firmly entrenched on commanding heights. The young officer led his platoon along a narrow, treacherous ridge that led to the enemy position. He surged ahead of his troops and charged at the enemy with a full-throated battle cry through a hail of bullets. Although wounded in the shoulder and leg, he pressed on his solitary charge with grim determination. Critically bleeding, he collapsed at the final bunker and finally succumbed to his injuries, but not before the last of the enemy had been annihilated. Lieutenant Manoj Kumar Pandey was awarded the Param Vir Chakra, India's highest medal for gallantry, posthumously.

Grenadier Yogender Singh Yadav, 18 Grenadiers

Grenadier Yogender Singh Yadav Grenadier Yogender Singh Yadav of 18 Grenadiers, was part of the Commando 'Ghatak' Platoon tasked to capture three strategic bunkers on Tiger Hill during the Kargil war on the night of July 3-4, 1999. In spite of having been hit by three bullets in his groin and shoulder, displaying great strength and resolve, he climbed the remaining 60 feet, all by himself and reached the top. With rare grit and courage, he crawled up to the bunker critically injured and lobbed a grenade killing four Pakistani soldiers and neutralising enemy fire. For his sustained display of the most conspicuous personal bravery and gallantry of the highest order in the face of the enemy, Grenadier Yogender Singh Yadav was awarded the Param Vir Chakra, India's highest medal for gallantry.

Rifleman Sanjay Kumar, 13 JAK Rifles

 Rifleman Sanjay Kumar Rifleman Sanjay Kumar, 13 Jammu and Kashmir Rifles, was the leading Scout of a team tasked to capturing Area Flat Top of Point 4875 in the Mushkoh Valley on July 4, 1999, being held by Pakistani-backed militants. Without concern for personal safety, Kumar crawled alone up the ledge and charged towards the enemy bunker, through a hail of automatic fire. Bleeding profusely from the bullet wounds, he continued the charge towards the bunker. He then picked up the enemy machine gun and crept towards the second enemy bunker. Three enemy soldiers, taken completely by surprise were killed by him on the spot. For his sustained display of bravery, Rifleman Sanjay Kumar was awarded the Param Vir Chakra.

UN Operations

Captain G.S. Salaria , 3/1 GR, posthumous

 Captain Gurbachan Singh Salaria Captain Gurbachan Singh Salaria was born on November 29, 1935, in Gurdaspur, Punjab. He was commissioned in the 1 Gorkha Rifles on 9 June 1957. After the Belgians quit Congo, a civil war situation developed in that country. When the United Nations decided upon military intervention to retrieve the situation, India contributed a brigade of around 3000 men to the UN Force. Captain Salaria prevented the enemy from going to the roundabout thereby saving the UN Headquarters in Elizabethville from encirclement. For his extraordinary leadership and devotion to duty, Captain Gurbachan Singh Salaria was awarded the highest wartime medal, Param Vir Chakra, posthumously.

Saichen Operations

Naib Subedar Bana Singh , 8 JAK LI

Naib Subedar Bana Singh Naib Subedar Bana Singh, born in Kadyal, Jammu on January 6, 1949, was enrolled in the Indian Army on January 6, 1969 into the Jammu & Kashmir Light Infantry (JAK LI). During June 1987, the 8 JAK LI, was deployed in the Siachen area. Naib Subedar Singh volunteered to join the special task force formed to root out Pakistani infiltrators. Naib Subedar Bana Singh led his men through an extremely difficult and hazardous route. Lobbing hand-grenades, charging with a bayonet and moving from trench to trench, he cleared the post of all intruders. He was awarded the Param Vir Chakra, the highest wartime gallantry medal, for conspicuous bravery and leadership under most adverse conditions.

IPFK Operations

Major R. Parameswaran , 8 Mahar, posthumous - IPKF Operations

 Major Ramaswamy Parameswaran Major Ramaswamy Parameswaran was born on September 13, 1946, in Mumbai. He was granted Short Service Commission in the Mahar Regiment on January 16, 1972. He took part in a number of operations undertaken by the Indian Army. Under the Indo-Sri Lanka Agreement many Indian Army units were dispatched to Sri Lanka to maintain law and order there. On November 25, 1987, Major Parameswaran and his column were ambushed by a group of militants. With great presence of mind he encircled the militants from the rear and boldly charged them. During the hand-to-hand combat that followed, one militant shot him in the chest. Undaunted by his grave injury, he snatched the rifle from a militant and shot him dead. Though critically wounded he continued to give orders and inspire his command till he breathed his last. For the most conspicuous bravery & supreme sacrifice, Parameswaran was honoured with the Param Vir Chakra, posthumously.


  1. SALUTE you all sons of motherland INDIA.You all are real Heroes.
    Donation of eyes is big donation..
    Donation of blood is the bigger one.
    But biggest & greatest donation is donation of LIFE.

    My head is down for you all respected ideals. chest is expanded 5 inches.

    Trend is still continue Sir.
    You have done your work, but still there are some tasks left ,which r still to do.
    many of like me are coming to complete the,& we need your blessing, your experinces, your coaching, your strategies & never the less your bravery & feeling for your country. i am proud to be an indian,

    We always say that We are lucky to take birth in country of religions, festivals, seasons.
    I am sure that Religions , Festivals, Seasons would be very happy becoz all they are in this country . who has SONS LIKE YOU.
    and soon all of them will also proud of ME.
    I am coming behind you.
    luv u my country.